自製醃肉及煙燻篇 - 煙肉 (HOMEMADE CURING AND SMOKING – Bacon and Pancetta)

對不起,這麼久才能寫這篇文章,小編住離島很難買到所需食材,所以有時間才可以去買。

I’m so sorry that this is a very late post since I’m living in Outlying island, it’s not easy for me to go buy ingredients.

 

在這篇,小編也想回應早前世衛把加工肉類列為1級致癌物,大家不要被世衛所說而恐慌,他們所指的是工廠製造的加工肉類,小編之前也說過,工廠為保持肉類的美觀,會加入硝酸鹽、亞硝酸鹽和味增劑等人工化合物,在醃肉過程中,肉類的吸收及經過轉化後,就成為致癌的重要原數,所以我們自家製的,沒有加入這些人工化學劑的肉類,在醃製過程中,注意衛生、溫度、濕度及醃製份量,那麼食用就會安全的。其實自家製醃肉的過程,鹽及糖的作用是把肉類的水份排走,防止細菌滋生,香料則給味道而已。至於煙燻,一般用燒烤爐或室外煙燻爐是用炭把木材燃燒,才得到木材的獨特香味,在炭上烤肉,不加入木材煙燻,本已容易致癌,但小編介紹的煙燻是沒有炭的,只是在爐上加熱,把木材帶出其香味,而溫度亦比較直接煮食為低,所以讀者也是安全地製作肉類的。

In this post, I also wanna talk a bit about WHO’s just announced that processed meats caused cancer, however, don’t panic about this, WHO’s actually meant processed meats made in factory, as I mentioned in earlier post, factories make processed meats with sodium nitrites, nitrates and artificial flavouring, since when the cured meat occured, the meats will absorb and transform those chemicals with its protein and this is what caused cancer afterwards.  On the other hand, our homemade processed meats without these chemicals, once you are careful while process the meat in temperature, humidity, hygiene and acidity, you should safety to enjoy it.  Since we are just using salt and sugar to help the meat to get rid of water to prevent growth of bacteria and herbs just add natural flavouring for meats.  For the smoking meats, generally will use grill stove or outdoor smoker and process smoking with coal and wood to get the flavour, but barbecue with coal, it will be caused the risk of cancer itself no matter added wood or not.  Actually, the stove-top smoker that I’m used that without process with coal, just heat up the wood and get its smell, and, the cooking temperature is low compared with general direct cooking, so it’s safety as well.

 

豬肉是最常見的醃肉,例如 : 煙肉,豬肉腸等。 如果讀者能夠買到無骨豬上脾,也可以做火腿的,但小編找了很久也沒有;還有做火腿需要買牛腸衣

The most popular curing pork are bacon and sausages.  Of course, you can make ham as well, but I can’t find boneless pork leg, on the other hand, you have to buy beef casing in order to make ham.

 

先說煙肉及意大利咸肉,所用的部位是腩肉,在街市或超市也很容易買到,而煙肉的做法在醃肉中也是最簡單直接及最快有成果的。 小編會分享一般的煙肉及意大利咸肉的做法,兩者做法也是一樣,但煙肉最後需要做煙燻,而意大利咸肉則需要風乾。

Well, we talk about bacon and pancetta (Italian bacon), both are using pork belly, it’s easy to find in supermarkets or butchers, and they are the most easiest way to enter homemade curing world. Bacon and pancetta curing method are the same, but after curing,  bacon have to be smoked and pancetta have to be air-dried for a month.

 

首先需要選擇一舊長方或四方型的腩肉,讀者亦可以先購買一般超市可以容易買到的細小腩肉來嘗試,但製作時間也是一樣的。

First you need a large pork belly in square or rectangle shape, but if you wanna just try first, you can also buy a small one, but the curing time are the same.

IMG_7027

 

煙肉的做法 (Bacon) :

 

1. 先清洗一下,用紙印乾,然後把豬皮慢慢地用刀分開,豬皮可以留作其他用途的,不要棄掉;
Wash it and dry it using paper towel or cloth, cut out the lard using sharp knife carefully, keep the lard for other usage

IMG_7028

 

2. 用小刀小心地去除腩肉底部的膜 (如有)
Cut out the sheet underneath of the belly of the pork (if necessary)

 

3. 先量度腩肉的重量,而鹽的分量是腩肉的5%
Measure the weight of the pork belly and prepare the salt around 5% of meat weight

 

4. 準備一個密封的袋或可用真空機幫助,把腩肉放入,然後加入鹽、黑胡椒、蔗糖、月桂葉、蜜糖或楓糖 (用於煙肉),以及乾杜松果(可以不加,視乎個人喜好),把醃料平均地塗滿整舊腩肉,密封好袋口,一定要封好,不然醃料的汁液會留出的。
Prepare a vacuum bag or ziplock bag, put the pork belly in and add salt, black pepper, brown sugar, bay leaves, honey or maple syrup (bacon only) and jupiter berries (personal preference), mix all the seasonings well and cover the whole pork belly, vacuum it or zip it well (make sure no water can be escaped)

IMG_7029

 

5. 然後放入雪櫃7天,但每天也是翻一次,最好按摩一下腩肉。
Put it into Refrigerator for 7 days and flip it over every day, better massage it too.

 

6. 醃肉7天後在雪櫃取出後,先在水喉下沖先及用手把醃料沖走,然後準備一個大碗,加入水及冰,把沖洗好的腩肉放入並浸水3小時。
Take it out after 7 days curing, wash it and get rid out all the seasonings under tape water, then prepare a large bowl, add water and ice and put the pork belly in for 3 hours

IMG_7044

 

7. 浸好後可以取出並印乾水份,最後可以進行煙燻了。
After 3 hours, take out and dry it using paper towel or cloth, and you can do smoking.

IMG_7045

 

8. 煙燻好放涼後就可以切片存放
After Smoking, just cool down and you can cut into slice and keep it in refrigerator.

IMG_7048

由於醃好的肉比較硬身,小編建議使用切肉機幫助,切成薄片。 小編找了很久才找到這個非一般輕巧的小型切肉機,除了切肉外,也可切硬的鄉村包,真的很方便,當您時常也做自己不同的醃肉時,這真是個好幫手,這部切肉機比中國製造的還要便宜很多了 :
Since after cured, bacon is quite hard, better use meat slicer to assist for cutting into thin slices. Since most of the meat slicer is bulky and require much space, finally, I found one that very compact and light, and the most important is cheaper alot than made in China one, you can also use it to slice for sourdough as well :

ritter Allesschneider E 16 mit ECO-Motor

 

意大利咸肉的做法 (Pancetta) :

 

1. 先跟煙肉的醃法,及沖先步驟
Follow bacon curing method

 

2. 準備好紮肉的綿線,把腩肉卷好,依以下方法紮好
prepare a butcher string, roll it well and follow the below step to tie the knot well

 

IMG_7053

 

3. 準備好綿袋或魚湯袋(小編用2個袋以防止蚊蟲在肉上產卵),把袋掛在沒有陽光及比較潮濕的地方,例如 : 星盆附近,等待風乾一個月,切成粒就可以用來煮食了。
Prepare a cotton bag or soup bag (I’m using double soup bag to prevent any eggs from bugs and mosquitos), hang the bag in a place that moisture but out of sunlight. After a month, you can take it out, cut it in chunk and cook it.

IMG_7054

IMG_1692

下一篇待續。。。香腸