自製醃肉及煙燻篇 - 煙燻 (HOMEMADE CURING AND SMOKING – Smoking food)

之後幾篇的醃肉最後也是煙燻,為什麼? 因為醃肉後是生的,除了魚類外,其他也不能直接食用,所以最後也要煮過或煙燻熟成食物才可。

We mentioned smoking after cured for the next few posts, why need so? since cured meat is still raw, it’s not cooked, cured meat just prevent bacteria growth on the meat, other than fish, other meats not prefer to eat raw, so better cook it or smoke it afterwards.

 

煙燻食物在西方國家比較普遍、多樣化及復雜,但中式煙燻卻簡單得多。

Smoked meat is more familiar in western countries, it’s more fun and complicated, but it’s just only one style for chinese smoking method.

 

西式煙燻有兩樣,熱燻及冷燻,乾燻及濕燻;熱燻溫度為100-130度,而冷燻為60-90度。我們在家一般只會做熱燻,因為溫度高而不會滋生細菌;但冷燻肉類需要比較專業的人員及地方才可進行,由於冷燻肉類時間很長,而細菌很喜歡於冷燻的溫度下迅速生長,所以我們在家進行冷燻肉類是很危險的,食用後可能致命,所以在此也特別提醒讀者,不要冒險進行冷燻肉類,有事發生,小編不負責的。但可以在家進行冷燻芝士、堅果、甜椒粉,這相對風險很低。

First talk about western one, there are two smoking method, hot smoke and cold smoke, dry smoking and wet smoking; hot smoke temperature around 100-130 degree and cold smoke around 60-90 degree.  However, we suggested you to process hot smoke at home only since the temperature is high, it can killed bacteria; Alternatively, cold smoke meats require professional equipment and wide knowledge of techniques, cold smoke meats also require long time to process and the temperature of cold smoke meats caused bacteria growth rapidly during the time being, so it is very dangerous to do so at home, it will killed you.  So once again, it is so important that don’t try to cold smoke meats at home, if any accident happened, I will not take any responsibility, none of my business at all. However, you can try to cold smoking cheese, nuts, paprika etc, this is relatively low risk.

 

乾燻為沒有帶水份的煙燻,主要也是用木碎或/及炭;而濕燻則會加酒精成份的飲品,增加其味道及帶給肉類水份。

Dry smoking means without any liquid, just use wood and/or coal; on the other hand, wet smoking will add some alcoholic drinks that flavouring and tendering the meats  .

 

此外,在外國亦有一款叫沒有煙的煙燻,是一瓶煙燻液體,把液體用針筒直接入肉類內,味道出來就好想一般煙燻一樣,通常配合低溫慢煮或烤焗的烹調方法。其實這些液體真的從真正煙燻蒸餾出來的液體,方便一些煙燻爐的人也可以在家中享受到煙燻味道的食品。 但工廠式的煙肉也是用這些液體用機械噴在豬肉表面上,所以讀者在超市買回來的煙肉也是生的。

In western countries, also have another method called smokeless meat, which is a liquid smoke, it is a concentrated smoke comes from real smoked wood in the water, it’s good for those people without smoker at home, you can find in high grade supermarket in Hong Kong, but I can found one flavour for sale only.  This liquid smoke used to inject the liquid inside the meat, it will have smoked flavour, normally will use for sous vide and bake cooking method.  However, liquid smoke also widely use in factory for bacon, they are just machine spray the liquid in the surface of pork belly, so what you buy from supermarket, the bacon is raw as well.

這就是煙燻液體,在香港一大型超市才有售,但亦只有一款木材味道而已

 

然而中式煙燻一般只是短暫進行,材料一般只是白飯、糖及茶葉,所以煙燻的味道是淡淡表面的。

Chinese smoke food just a temporary flavour since it’s smoke about 15 -20 minutes only, normally using cooked rice, sugar and tea leaves for smoking flavour.

 

近年也興起煙燻槍,由於煙燻槍只是一陣子的煙霧,所以味道一瞬間就會消失,這只是餐廳的小把戲而已。

Recently, smoking gun also popular in the market, it’s just a smoke cloud a very short time before serving the food, so there’s only a minutes flavour only, I can say it’s just a toy or show off for restaurant.

 

好多人以為做煙燻一定要有燒烤爐及在屋外才可,但其實我們在家也可以做煙燻的,只是沒有燒烤功能而已,煙燻出來的食物不會黑黑的;亦因如此,如進行濕燻,也沒有燒焦效果,所以需要放入焗爐烤至脆皮。在外國煙燻是很普通的,所以他們也有在室內專用的煙燻鍋,只需要放在爐具上加熱就可以了,還沒有太多的煙霧,很安全的。

Many people think that smoking food must process in outdoor with kettle grill or desktop smoker, but it is not, you can do it using smoked meat without grilling, so the meat not comes out with black colour only, if so, if you are doing wet smoking, it will not becomes crispy skin, better put to the oven for roasting it until skin turn brown .  Smoked meat is very popular in other countries, so they have stove top smoker for sale, it’s not really messy but safe.

室內煙燻機 :

Nordic Ware 365 Indoor/Outdoor Kettle Smoker

 

冷燻器 :

Jaeger-Sparbrand aus Edelstahl V2A, bis 20 Stunden Kaltrauch, Kaltraucherzeuger, Cold Smoke Generator, Food Smoker, Meat Smoker, für Grills, BBQ, Räucheröfen, Made in Germany. Das hier abgebildete Räuchermehl, Teelicht und Mini-Lötbrenner gehört nicht zum Lieferumfang. In Deutschland gefertigt und für die Fa. Jaeger-Versand bereits 1995 entwickelt !!! Sie kaufen direkt beim Hersteller. Mit ausführlicher deutscher Anleitung !!!!

 

在外國,用來煙燻的物料是木頭或木碎,而味道選擇亦很多,用這個爐頭式煙燻鍋是用木碎的,買回來會跟兩款不同的木碎,小編會簡單說說比較普遍的木材味道及用於什麼肉類,那可以給讀者參考購買自己喜歡的味道 :

There are many kinds of woods for smoking in western countries, for this stove top smoker, we are using wood chips, not the whole wood and come with 2 common wood chips in the box. Just explain the most popular woods below that you can reference for and select your favourite flavour for smoking of your meats.

木材種類
Wood Type
煙燻味道
Smoky Characteristics
適合的肉類
Good Paired with
蘋果木
Apple wood
清淡帶果香味
Mild and fruity
豬肉、紅肉鳥類 (乳鴿、鴨等)及芝士
Hams, game birds and cheese
榿木
Alder wood
清淡但細膩
Mild and delicate
魚及家禽
Fish and poultry
櫻桃木
Cherry Wood
清淡帶果甜
Mild, sweet and fruity
鴨肉及羊肉
Duck and venison
橡木
Oak wood
豐富的濃味帶辣
Strong, rich and pungent
牛肉、豬肉及羊肉
Beef, pork and venison
胡桃木
Hickory wood
超濃味帶苦
Strong, robust and bitter
牛肉
Beef

Wood Smoking Chips Variety Gift Set – Set of 8 Pints (Oak, Apple, Cherry, Pecan, Maple, Bourbon, Hickory, Mesquite)

 

 

apple wood smoked baby ribs
smoked baby ribs